Monday, 30 January 2012

Saturday, 28 January 2012


friday 28 january '12

shoot out

the arrival

Saturday, 14 January 2012

coffee and music reaching its objective

(plural: prosthecae)
a semirigid appendage extending from a procaryotic cell,
with a diameter which is always smaller than that of the mature cell,
and which is bounded by cell wall

eg. Caulobactor sp.

-produce under process sporulation, in response to extreme environmental
-dormant, temporarily non-productive structure
-produce from certain bacteria (firmicutes phylum)
-in the dormant, inert endospore state, bacteria do not metabolize or reproduce, but exist in suspended animation
-it formation tigger by lack of nutrient (usually in G+ bacteria)

6 varieties of locations and shapes for endospore
-central endospore: Bacillus cereus
-terminal endospore: Clostridium tetani;
.can cause tetanus
.endospore can be so large, cell is distended (swell) around endospore
-lateral endospre: Bacillus subtilis

Staining Bacterial Endospore
Normal water-based technique, such as gram stain will not stain these tough, resistant structure.
In order to stain endospores, malachite green must be forced into spore with heat,
in much same way that carbol fuchsin is forced through the waxy mycolic acid layer of Mycobacterium in the Acid-fast stain.

Protocol Staining Endospore

Archae: Morpology

-Methanococcus janaschii
-has numerous flagella attach

2.Coccus: Sarcina
-Methanosarcina barkeri
-a lobed coccus form lacking flagella

-Methanothermus fervidus

4.Elongate Bacillus
-Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

A Typical Bacterial Cell
(what we can see)
1.slime layer
5.inclusion body

Fine Structures of Bacteria
1.Surfaces Appandages: -flagella -fimbrae -pili - spines
2.Glycocalyx: -capsule
4. Resting Structures: -endospores
5. Cell Membranes, eloboration of cell membranes and structures in the cytoplasm
6. Cell Wall

Flagella Arrangement
-Monotrichous (one 'tail') -Lophotrichous (many 'tails', one direction)
-Amphitrichous (2 'tails', each at opposite pole of cell)
-Peritrichous (many many 'tails', all direction, all naturally occuring bacteria, motile)

-length: 12nm (Proteus vulgaris), 30nm (Vibrio metschnikovii) -range (15mic.m-20) some 70.
-flagella stain: basic fuchsin and tahnic acid

-fine, proteinaceous, hairlike bristles from the cell surface
-function, in adhesion to other cells and surfaces

Fimbriae Attachment
-survival: aquatic bacteria
-virulent factor: N. gonorrhea enterotoxic strain of E. coli
-M proteins and fimbriae of S pyrogenes: involved in adherence and resistance to phagocytosis
-surface pellicle formation in unshaked culture

-rigid tubular structure made of pilin protein
-found only in G- cells
-functions to join bacterial cells for partial DNA transfer called conjugation

Summary of Characteristic of Typical Bacterial Cell Structure

1.swimming movement
3.virulent factor. eg. H. pylori

Sex Pilus
1.stabilizes mating bacteria during DNA transfer by conjugation

1.attachment to surface: protection against phagotrophic engulfment

Capsule (include "slime layer" and glycolyx)
1.attachment to surfaces against phagocytic engulfment
3.ocassionally killing or digestion
4.reserve of nutrients or protection against desiccation -usually polysaccharide, ocassionally polypetide

-coating of molecule external to the cell wall
-made of sugars and/or proteins
2 type: 1. slime layer - loosely organized and attached
2. capsule layer - highly organized and tightly attached

Function glycolyx:
1.protect cells from dehydration and nutrient loss
2.inhibit killing by white blood cells by phagocytosis, contributing to pathogenicity
3.attachement - formation of biofilms
1. L. mesenteroides - destran (use as stabilizer in syrup)
2. Xanthomonas camperstris - xanthan (use as engine oil)

Capsule -Function:
1.prevent attachment of bacteriophage against antibacterial agent
3.attachment: virulent factors, produce tosins/enzyme and disturbing function of organs against phagocytic engulfmentm ocassionally killing or digestion. 1. B. anthracis 2. C. perfringens 3.S. pneumoniae against desiccation and stabilize culture
-homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides

peptidoglycan >50% dry weight
has teichoic acid and/or teichuronic acid
lipid 1-4% dry weight
No protein

peptidoglycan 10% dry weight
No techoic acid and-
lipid 11-22% dry weight
Has Protein, Lipoprotein, Lipopolysaccharides

Friday, 13 January 2012

mind-counter-mind, mind-counter-heart


coffee + koolfever


then to,


sparklehorse's it's wonderful life is too lovely
rip mark linkous.

Sunday, 1 January 2012


-is a set of organism interacting with one another
and with their environment of nonliving matter and energy within a defined area and volume.

-is the ability of the earth's natural system and human cultural system and economies to survive and adapt to the changing environmental condition indefinitely.


1.NATURAL CAPITAL = the natural source and natural service that keep us and other forms of life alive and economies.

Natural source = are materials and energy in nature that useful to human.
Renewable: air, water, soil, plant and wind
Non renewable: copper, oil, coal

Natural services = are functions of nature such as purification of air and water, which support life and human economies.

Vital natural service = nutrient cycling

Natural capital is support by solar capital

Solar energy: warm planet + support photosynthesis

2. Is to recognize that many human activities can degrade natural capital by using normally renewable sources faster than the nature can renew them.

3. Environmentalist scientist search for a problem such as degradation of natural capital and can only find scientific solutions for them. They way to force usually need political power or political coorperation. Usually will involve trade off, that will need agreement between 2 or more parties.

-management of natural resources with the goal of minimizing resources waste and sustaining resources supply for current and future generation.

-the amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply the particular country or area with resources  and to absorb

Ecology: introduction and term.

ECOLOGY - is the study of the interaction organism with one another and with their physical environment, and how how the interaction determine the

abundance and distribution of organism.

- is biological environment consisting of
all organism (biotic) living  in a particular area as well as
the nonliving (abiotic) physical component of the environment,
with which the organism interact, such as air, organism water and sunlight.

are a classification of globally similar areas, including ecosystem,
such as ecological communities  of plants and animal, soil organism and climate condition.
- biomes are in part defined based on factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and

needleleaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna) and climate.

A fundamental classification of biomes is:
1. Terrestrial (land) biomes.
2. Freshwater biomes.
3. Water biomes.

SPECIES - is a group of organisms so similar to one another, that they can breed.

POPULATION - are groups of individual that belong to the same species
and living in the same area.

COMMUNITY - are assemble of the different poplations that live together in a defined area.

organism -> population -> community -> ecosphere

BIOTIC COMPONENT are the living things that shape an ecosystem.
A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organisms, including animals that consume the organism in question,
and the living food that the organism consumes.
Each biotic factor needs energy to do work and food for proper growth.
Biotic factors include human influence.

Biotic Components usually include:
- Producers, i.e autotrophs. eg. plants
- Consumers, i.e heterotrophs. eg. animals
- Decomposer, i.e detrivores. eg. fungi and bacteria, they break down chemicals from producers and consumers into simpler form which can be reused.

ABIOTIC COMPONENTS - are non living chemical and physical factors in the environment which affect ecosystems.

From the  viewpiont of biology, abiotic influences maybe classified as light or more generally radiation, temperature, water, the chemical

surrounding the terrestrial atmospheric gases, as well as soil.
The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above.
Not to mention pressure and even sound waves if working with marine, or deep underground, biome.

For example, there is a significant difference in access to water as well as humidity between temperate rainforests and deserts. This difference in

water access causes a diversity in the types of plants and animals that grow in these areas.

AUTOTROPH - producer
is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple inorganic molecules using energy from

light (by photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
They are the producer of the food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water.
They are able to make their own food and fix carbon.

HETEROTROPH - 'hetero' another 'troph' nutrition
is an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth.

This contracts with autotrophs, such as plants and algae, which can use energy from sunlight (photoautotroph) or inorganic compound (lithoautotrophs)

to produce organic compounds such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins form inorganic carbon dioxide.
This reduced carbon compounds can be used as an energy source by the autotroph and provide the energy in food consumed by heterotrophs.


- Abiotic components permit and limit life
- Biotic components affect their physical environment
- Boundaries are unclear
- Each ecosystem, community, or population may be part of a larger one

FOOD CHAIN - succession of organisms in an ecological community that constitutes a continuation of food energy from one organisms to another as each consumes a lower member and in turn is preyed uopn by a higher number.

FOOD WEB - a complex of interrelated food chains in an ecological community. that form a network.

The same sky, that we looked upon.

"so its not hard to fall,
when you float like a cannonball."